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By edited by William R. Bushnell and Alan P. Roelfs.

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Extra info for The Cereal rusts v. 2. Diseases, distribution, epidemiology, and control

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1 ; for details of the asexual disease cycle, see Fig. 2. 1. Wheat and Rye Stem Rust 17 T h e sexually reproducing population is characterized by diversity. T h e total number of phenotypes is great (usually one phenotype per five or fewer isolates) (Roelfs and Groth, 1980; Groth and Roelfs, 1982). T h e various phenotypes in the populations tend to occur in a rather even frequency (Groth and Roelfs, 1982). Most cultures have several dominant genes for avirulence, and thus, the heterozygous Έ1 cultures often have a narrow host range.

A set of self-pollinated rye lines was developed that permits a more detailed investigation of virulence in P. graminis f. sp. secalis (Tan et al, 1976). These ryes with "single" genes for resistance have been used in North America (Steffenson et al, 1983) and Australia (Tan et ah, 1975) to study variation in P. graminis f. sp. secalis. The Australian work also included hybrids between P. graminis f. sp. secalis and tritici (Tan et al, 1975), as well as P. graminis f. sp. tritici itself (Luig and Tan, 1978).

However, selfing of heterozygous cultures occassionally results in cultures with a wide host range. IV. Physiological Specialization T h e use of race-specific resistance (see Chapter 13, this volume) to control wheat stem rust requires continued monitoring of the variation in the pathogen population for virulence (Volume I, Chapter 5). This has been and continues to be done annually in many countries. Published information appears regularly in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, India, Italy, Pakistan, and the United States.

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