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Emotion (or impact) is a cross-disciplinary topic in psychology. Psychology Library variations: Emotion (12 quantity set) brings jointly as one set, or person volumes, a sequence of formerly out-of-print titles, released among 1976 and 1999. Written by way of a variety of authors from diversified backgrounds and spanning varied parts of psychology, comparable to medical, cognitive, developmental and social, the set covers a variety of methods together with learn on kids and children. an excellent chance to realize a wealth of data and heritage in an immense box of psychology.

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Additional resources for Altruistic Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior (PLE Emotion)

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1981) attempted to differentiate between personal distress and sympathy: "To the extent that arousal is interpreted as alarm and concern rather than disgust and upset and the salience of empathic costs for not helping exceed personal cost considerations, the motive for helping has a sympathetic rather than selfish tone" (pp. 239-240). [These empathic costs] "involve internalizing the need or suffering of the victim and produce a continued and perhaps increased level of unpleasant arousal (p. " It is unclear whether sympathetic reactions are believed to lead to helping due to the actor' s des ire to reduce his or her o\Vn aousal.

Hostility, erotic feelings, anxiety, jealousy, fear, guilt, and pride all playa role. Although the endproduct, the superego, contains representations of values and the ideal self, it is controlled by guilt. According to the traditional psychoanalytic perspective, the role of cognition in moral development is minor. Even seemingly cognitive aspects of morality, such as principles of justice, are attributed to irrational, selfish desires. For example, Freud (1955) asserted that: "social justice means that we deny ourselves many things so that others may have to do without them as weil, or what is the same, they may not be able to ask for them.

Thus, with time, the child leams that helping behaviors are self-reinforcing. Hoffman (1975, 1976, 1982a) has proposed the most detailed account of the development of an association between empathy and altruism. According to his model, in the first year of life, before the child has acquired person permanence (the understanding that people are permanent objects separate from the self that exist over time), others' distress cues elicit global distress responses, that is, "a fusion of unpleasant feelings and of stimuli that come from the infant' s own body, from the dimly perceived 'other,' and from the situation [1982a, p.

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