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By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen

Major growth has happened over the past few years in machine applied sciences and those are surveyed during this new quantity. incorporated are Si/(Si-Ge) heterojunctions for high-speed built-in circuits, Schottky-barrier arrays in Si and Si-Ge alloys for infrared imaging, III-V quantum-well detector constructions operated within the heterodyne mode for high-data-rate communications, and III-V heterostructures and quantum-wells for infrared emissions.

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Additional info for Advances in Research and Development, Volume 23: Modeling of Film Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (Thin Films)

Example text

18 D . W . GREVE Now suppose that the surface is exposed to a flux of silicon atoms. There are two possible regimes of growth. If the surface diffusion rate is sufficiently high, adatoms will migrate to step edges and incorporate there. Experimentally, it is found that the type SB step edge grows more rapidly; when this step edge catches up with the type SA step edge a double step is formed (63). At high temperatures growth then proceeds as step edges migrate across the crystal surface (step-flow growth).

Hydrogen desorbs at a lower temperature than HCI. (From P. A. Coon, P. Gupta, M. L. Wise, and S. M. George, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. ) GexSi~_xEPITAXIAL LAYER GROWTH AND APPLICATION TO INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 37 position. Nevertheless, this reaction sequence does help explain some of the phenomena observed in low-temperature epitaxial growth. Growth rates for dichlorosilane are generally lower than for silane at low temperatures, and this can be explained by the fact that predominantly hydrogen desorption occurs at low temperatures, leaving a surface that becomes increasingly saturated with chlorine.

50). 70 layers doped to 2 X 1020 cm -3 with an HBO 2 source were highly defective, while similar doping levels could be achieved with an elemental boron source without defects. Layers with boron concentration of 5 X 10 2~ c m -3 (measured by SIMS) and good surface morphology were grown at 350~ Boron concentrations at this level are sufficient for virtually all devices. However, the abruptness of the boron profile is also important. Like germanium, boron tends to segregate to the surface. 20Si080 grown at low temperatures ( ~ 450~ At higher growth temperatures the decay length A increases with evidence for a transition from kinetically limited to equilibrium segregation at about 600~ Thus delta-doped regions must be grown by depositing boron and capping it at low temperatures (52,53).

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