By Mendel Cooper
This is often the full reference at the Borne back shell (bash). quantity 1Volume 2 comprises all appendices.
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Additional resources for Advanced bash-scripting guide
Wild card [asterisk]. The * character serves as a "wild card" for filename expansion in globbing. By itself, it matches every filename in a given directory. sh The * also represents any number (or zero) characters in a regular expression. * arithmetic operator. In the context of arithmetic operations, the * denotes multiplication. ** A double asterisk can represent the exponentiation operator or extended file-match globbing. test operator. Within certain expressions, the ? indicates a test for a condition.
Null command [colon]. This is the shell equivalent of a "NOP" (no op, a do-nothing operation). It may be considered a synonym for the shell builtin true. The ":" command is itself a Bash builtin, and its exit status is true (0). 1 : 2 echo $? Endless loop: 1 while : # 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 do operation-1 operation-2 ... operation-n done # Same as: # while true # do # ... # done Placeholder in if/then test: 1 2 3 4 5 if condition then : # Do nothing and branch ahead else # Or else ... take-some-action fi Provide a placeholder where a binary operation is expected, see Example 8-2 and default parameters.
Echo; echo numbers="one two three" # ^ ^ other_numbers="1 2 3" # ^ ^ # If there is whitespace embedded within a variable, #+ then quotes are necessary. # other_numbers=1 2 3 # Gives an error message. echo "numbers = $numbers" echo "other_numbers = $other_numbers" # other_numbers = 1 2 3 # Escaping the whitespace also works. mixed_bag=2\ ---\ Whatever # ^ ^ Space after escape (\). ). uninitialized_variable= # Declaring, but not initializing it -#+ same as setting it to a null value, as above.