By Daniel Fleisch, Julia Kregenow

The learn of astronomy deals an enormous chance for us to achieve a deeper knowing of our planet, the sunlight approach, the Milky manner Galaxy and the recognized Universe. utilizing the plain-language process that has confirmed hugely well known in Fleisch's different Student's publications, this publication is perfect for non-science majors taking introductory astronomy classes. The authors handle themes that scholars locate so much problematic, on matters starting from stars and light-weight to gravity and black holes. Dozens of totally labored examples and over one hundred fifty workouts and homework difficulties aid readers familiarize yourself with the techniques in each one bankruptcy. An accompanying site encompasses a host of aiding fabrics, together with interactive ideas for each workout and challenge within the textual content and a chain of video podcasts during which the authors clarify the $64000 options of each portion of the e-book.

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**Example text**

So if you want to multiply 2 × 104 by 4 × 103 , you can just multiply the coefficients (2 × 4 = 8) and add the exponents (4 + 3 = 7) to get the correct result of 8 × 107 . To see why this works, you can write the numbers out in decimal notation: (2 × 104 ) × (4 × 103 ) = (20,000) × (4,000) = 80,000,000 = 8 × 107 . Notice that when you multiplied 20,000 by 4,000, the result had to have all the zeroes of each factor – that is, the sum of the number of zeroes, which is the sum of the exponents. That is why you add exponents when you multiply quantities in scientific notation.

3 × 10−11 is a very very small number. In astronomy, you are unlikely to encounter many negative numbers, but you are very likely to see negative exponents. For example, the values of some of the physical constants, wavelengths of light, and masses of atoms are all very small and are often written using scientific notation with negative exponents. 6 × 10−19 . 6, respectively. The base is 10 for both, the standard for scientific notation. The exponent is the power that 10 is raised to, including any negative signs, so the exponents are 6 and −19, respectively.

3 Rate problems 27 rate (2 biscuits per day), and you are asked to calculate the amount. Plugging directly into Eq. 12 gives amount = rate × time = 2 biscuits ✟ = 14 biscuits. days × 7✟ ✚ day ✚ Here’s how you can apply Eq. 12 to an example that does not lend itself so readily to computation in your head. Example: If the Sun has 9 × 1028 kg of hydrogen available as fuel, and if it uses up that fuel at a rate of 6 × 1011 kg/s, how long will it take the Sun to use up all of its available fuel? You are given the amount of fuel and rate of fuel consumption, and asked to calculate the time.