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By John M. Lipski

The African slave alternate introduced African languages into touch with Spanish and Portuguese starting within the 15th century, and ended in the Africans' slow acquisition of those languages. John Lipski describes the most important varieties of Afro-Hispanic language present in the Iberian Peninsula and Latin the US over the past 500 years. keeping apart valid kinds of Afro-Hispanic expression from those who end result from racist stereotyping, he exhibits how touch with the African diaspora has had an everlasting impression on Spanish this present day.

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Another rapidly developing sea power, England sought to repeat the Dutch successes in muscling into the Atlantic trade. English and Dutch forces engaged in skirmishes on land and at sea during much of the seventeenth 37 38 Goslinga (1979, 1990), Hartog (1961, 1968). 39 Escalante (1964:42). Rawley (1981:ch. IV). 36 A History of Afro-Hispanic Language century, and England gained footholds in the Gambia (establishing the fort of St. James at the mouth of the Gambia River in 1664), the Gold Coast (establishing a fort at Accra in 1673), and the Niger Delta area.

For a while, S˜ao Tom´e was Portugal’s main source of sugar, and the planters on that island (which was originally uninhabited) had a ready source of slaves from the neighboring African coast. Much of the slave trade to S˜ao Tom´e was handled by local traders and planters, circumventing official monopolies. Because S˜ao Tom´e is nearly equidistant from the Bight of Benin and the Angolan coast, 20 Barry (1988:73). 21 Hilton (1985:ch. 3). 22 Rodney (1970:99). 26 A History of Afro-Hispanic Language slaves from both regions were taken to the island.

Although ethnic rivalries in Africa can create nearly impenetrable barriers among groups, the racist reaction occasioned by strikingly different physical characteristics between Europeans and black Africans did not enter into consideration. Nor was the ethnic fragmentation as massive in most cases. In European and American slaveholdings, it was usual to find Africans from a wide variety of ethnic and linguistic groups, who had been thrown together by mere chance. Within Africa, slaves were normally acquired either from geographically adjacent regions, or by established trade mechanisms that predictably yielded members of known ethnic groups.

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